Private Pilot Certification – Unit 3 pt. 3

October 2, 2008

*This is a current project of mine. I am using GMS to memorize a study guide for the FAA Private Pilot Certification test. After taking the 60-lesson course at the School of Phenomenal Memory, this is an example of what you would be able to do.*

I finally got the time today to continue working on Unit 3. There was a lot in this part of the unit that I hadn’t heard of before, and the opportunity to research and learn is only made better by the fact that I know I’m not going to forget it 🙂

3.7 – Collision Avoidance
3.7.1 – Airplanes have a red light on the left wing, a green light on the right wing, and a white light on the tail. Knowing which side of an aircraft you are looking at is important for determining if you are on a collision path with the airplane.
3.7.2 – A flashing red light is a rotating strobe, visible from all sides.
3.7.3 – Scan the surrounding area in 10 degree eye movements for other aircraft. You will pick up traffic in the daytime from direct vision easiest.
3.7.4 – At night, scan the area similarly, but look for traffic with your peripheral vision.
3.7.5 – An aircraft that appears to not be moving is probably on a collision course. If the size of the aircraft grows, begin evasive action.
3.7.6 – Scan for traffic before performing maneuvers, especially upon approach/leaving an airport.
3.7.7 – All pilots are responsible for collision avoidance.
3.7.8 – Have your landing lights on under 10,000 feet for safety, day or night.

3.8 – ATIS and Ground Control
3.8.1 – Automatic Terminal Information Service transmits noncontrol information.
3.8.2 – ATIS reports weather, active runway, and other pertinent information.
3.8.3 – After landing, contact ground control only after directed to do so by the tower.
3.8.4 – Clearance to a runway gives clearance to use the taxiway and cross intersecting runways, but not to proceed onto the runway.
3.8.5 – ‘Taxi into position and hold’ gives clearance to taxi onto the runway, but not to takeoff.

3.9 – Class D Airspace
3.9.1 – Any tower controlled airspace that is not class B or class C.
3.9.2 – Indicated on maps with a blue dashed circle.
3.9.3 – When taking off from an uncontrolled runway within class D airspace, you must first contact the tower for the runway for which the airspace is designated.
3.9.4 – Class D airspace is 2500 ft above the airport.
3.9.5 – Two way radio communication is required for all take-off and landing procedures, regardless of weather.

3.10 – Class C Airspace
3.10.1 – Class C Airspace consists of the surface area and shelf area.
3.10.1a – Surface area is the area within 5 NM of the airport and under 4,000ft. AGL.
3.10.1b – Shelf area is from 5-10 NM of the airport, and 1,200-4,000 ft AGL.
3.10.2 – Outer area is the area within 20 NM of the airport. This is not class C airspace.
3.10.3 – Equipment required for operating within Class C airspace:
3.10.3a – 4096 transponder.
3.10.3b – Mode C capability.
3.10.3c – Two-way radio communication capability.
3.10.4 – Two-way radio communication with ATC must be established before entering Class C airspace.
3.10.5 – Contact ATC upon take-off from satellite airport.

3.11 – Terminal Radio Programs
3.11.1 – Terminal radio program services under VFR are basic, TRSA(Terminal Radio Service Area), Class C, and Class B.
3.11.2 – Participation is voluntary under VFR.

3.12 – Transponders
3.12.1 – Normal transponder code is 1200.
3.12.2 – Ident feature to be used as instructed by ATC only.
3.12.3 – Emergency codes:
3.12.3a – Hijacking code = 7500.
3.12.3b – Lost radio communication code = 7600.
3.12.3c – General emergency code = 7700.
3.12.3d – Military intercept code = 7777.

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Private Pilot Certification – Unit 3 pt. 2

September 30, 2008

*This is a current project of mine. I am using GMS to memorize a study guide for the FAA Private Pilot Certification test. After taking the 60-lesson course at the School of Phenomenal Memory, this is an example of what you would be able to do.*

I almost forgot to work on this tonight, I’ve been losing track of time with my blog projects 😛 . I split the unit in half, and spent 17 minutes reading and researching the first half. I then spent 13 minutes to memorize it.

Unit 3 – Airports, ATC, and Airspace

3.1 – Runway Markings
3.1.1 – The number at the beginning of the runway indicated the magnetic heading divided by 10 in degrees.
3.1.2 – The Displaced Threshold indicates the start of the landing portion of the runway, as a bold line crossing from one side to the other. The area before the threshold can be used for taxiing, take-off, and landing rollouts.
3.1.3 – Chevrons mark un-usable portions of runway. Not to be used for anything.
3.1.4 – Closed runways are marked with an ‘X’ at the ends of the runway.
3.1.5 – Runway holding position markings are where the pilot must stop before entering the runway. Two solid yellow lines on the pilot’s side with two yellow dashed lines on the runway side.

3.2 – Taxi signs
3.2.1 – Destination signs usually have arrows, and are black writing on yellow background.
3.2.2 – Holding signs are white on red background.

3.3 – Beacons
3.3.1 – If the green/white beacon is on during the day, it is not VFR conditions.
3.3.2 – Heliports are marked with a tri-beacon, green, yellow and white.
3.3.3 – White/White/Green is military
3.3.4 – Click mic 7 times to turn on automated lights.

3.4 – Traffic Patterns
3.4.1 – Left turns at airports without ATC.
3.4.2 – Enter downwind leg at 45 degrees at midpoint.
3.4.3 – Land into the wind as indicated by airsock or other device.
3.4.4 – Segmented Circles
3.4.4a – Show runway orientation
3.4.4b – Show turn patterns for landing
3.4.4c – Show wind direction

3.5 – VASI
3.5.1 – Provides visual descent information.
3.5.2 – Far/Distant VASI system, red lights on top, white on bottom for proper glide-slope.
3.5.3 – Single light: Amber = too high, Green = correct, Red = too low
3.5.4 – PAPI – 4 lights side by side. 4/3 red = too low. 4/3 white = too high. 2 red/2 white = correct.

3.6 – Wake Turbulence
3.6.1 – Vortices are only produced when lift is produced.
3.6.2 – Slow and heavy airplanes produce greatest vortices.
3.6.3 – Vortices spiral outward and upward from wingtips.
3.6.4 – Vortices sink in the air and travel with the wind. Approach and land from above and upwind of large aircraft.

There is, apparently, more information in the second half(I split it up by pages). Tomorrow I’ll finish off Unit 3, and I’ll also be bringing you another Memory Technique. If you are interested in learning how to memorize entire textbooks, read my reviews of GMS and the School of Phenomenal Memory.


Private Pilot Certification – Unit 3

September 29, 2008

*This is a current project of mine. I am using GMS to memorize a study guide for the FAA Private Pilot Certification test. After taking the 60-lesson course at the School of Phenomenal Memory, this is an example of what you would be able to do.*

Getting new blogs started sure can take up a lot of your day. Today I read through unit 3 of my study guide, familiarized myself with the new terms with some quick research, and memorized the sub-unit headings. Ended up taking 21 minutes tonight for this(includes reading and research time):

Unit 3 – Airports, Air Traffic Control, and Airspace
3.1 – Runway Markings
3.2 – Taxiway Signs
3.3 – Beacons and Runway Lights
3.4 – Traffic Holding Patterns
3.5 – VASI Lights
3.6 – Wake Turbulence
3.7 – Collision Avoidance
3.8 – ATIS and Ground Control
3.9 – Class D Airspace
3.10 – Class C Airspace
3.11 – Terminal Radar
3.12 – Transponder Codes
3.13 – Radio Phraseology
3.14 – ATC Traffic Advisories
3.15 – Light Signals
3.16 – ELT
3.17 – LAHSO (Land and Hold Short Operations)


Private Pilot Certification – Unit 2, part Deux

September 27, 2008

*This is a current project of mine. I am using GMS to memorize a study guide for the FAA Private Pilot Certification test. After taking the 60-lesson course at the School of Phenomenal Memory, this is an example of what you would be able to do.*

Alright, I got some time today to finish memorizing unit two, so here it goes:

Unit 2 – Airplane Instruments, Engines, and Systems

2.1 – Compass Turn Error
2.2 – Pitot Static System
2.3 – Airspeed Indicator
2.4 – Altimeter
2.5 – Types of Altitude
2.6 – Setting The Altimeter
2.6.1 – Increasing the pressure will increase the indicated altitude, and vice-versa.
2.6.2 – Every 1 inch of pressure change equates to approx. 1000 ft change in reading.

2.7 – Altimeter Error
2.7.1 – When the temperature drops, the indicated altitude will rise, and vice-versa.
2.7.1 – When the pressure drops, the indicated altitude will rise, and vice-versa.

2.8 – Gyroscopic Systems
2.8.1 – Attitude indicator shows the relationship between the airplane and the horizon.
2.8.2 – Turn Coordinator shows the roll and yaw of the airplane.
2.8.3 – Heading indicator shows which heading you are on, but needs to be set to the magnetic compass periodically.

2.9 – Engine Temperature
2.9.1 – Excessive heat can cause power loss, excessive oil consumption, and excessive engine wear.
2.9.2 – Excessive heat in the cylindrical heads and oil can be caused by:
2.9.2a – Excessive power
2.9.2b – Climbing too steeply and slowly in the heat.
2.9.2c – Using fuel with too low an octane.
2.9.2d – Using too lean a mixture.
2.9.2e – Not having enough oil.
2.9.3 – Excessive heat can be reduced by reversing any of the above problems. Dropping power, climbing less, changing the mixture, fuel, oil.

2.10 – Constant Speed Propellers
2.10.1 – The pitch of the propeller is adjustable.
2.10.2a – Throttle controls the power.
2.10.2b – Propeller Control changes the RPM.
2.10.3 – Don’t use high pressure(power) and low RPM.

2.11 – Ignition System
2.11.1 – Dual ignition system provides enhanced performance.
2.11.1a – Also provides enhanced safety.
2.11.2 – Loose or damaged wires can cause problems. For instance:
2.11.2a – Broken ground wire can cause engine shutoff difficulties.
2.11.2b – In this case, change mixture to idle cut-off to stop engine.

2.12 – Carburetor Icing
2.12.1 – More Susceptible in Float-carburetor engines than fuel-injection.
2.12.1a – Float carburetor engines intake air through a narrow venturi tube, creating low pressure at the fuel intake, pulling fuel into the carburetor.
2.12.2 – First sign of carburetor icing is decreased RPM.
2.12.3 – Icing occurs between 20 and 70 degrees F with visible moisture/high humidity.
2.12.4 – Turning on carb heat will decrease RPM further when warmer air enters engine, and as the ice melts the RPM will rise again.

2.13 – Carburetor Heat
2.13.1 – With heat on, the mixture can be leaned.
2.13.2 – Heat will cause decreased engine output and increased operating temperature.

2.14 – Fuel Air Mixture
2.14.1 – At higher altitudes the mixture should be leaned.
2.14.2 – During run-up at high-elevation airports, mixture should also be leaned if engine roughness is present.

2.15 – Abnormal Combustion
2.15.1 – Detonation occurs when the mixture explodes instead of burning evenly.
2.15.2 – This can be caused by too low of an octane, or too high of an engine temperature.
2.15.3 – Lower the nose during climb-out after take off if you think detonation is occuring.
2.15.4 – Pre-ignition is the firing of the mixture before the spark ignition.

2.16 – Airplane Fuel Practices
2.16.1 – Higher octane is better than lower octane.
2.16.2 – Filling fuel tanks at the end of the day is better than in the morning to reduce condensation in the tanks.
2.16.3 – Fuel strainer drains and fuel tank sumps should be drained to drain excess water before starting the engine.
2.16.4 – If the engine fuel pump dies, the electrical auxiliary fuel pump is used.

2.17 – Starting the Engine
2.17.1 – After starting the engine the RPM should be set and gauges checked.
2.17.2 – If starting an engine by hand, an experienced pilot should be behind the controls.

2.18 – Electrical System
2.18.1 – The alternator provides more electricity at low RPM than a generator.
2.18.2 – If the battery and alternator die, the avionic systems will be lost.

So that’s it for unit two. I spent another hour on it today, so that’s about 2 hours for unit two. This isn’t about speed memorization for me, I want to make sure that I really understand things. This slows me down a little when I run into terms like float-carburetors and fuel tank sumps, but yields a better understanding in the end.

It’s just the greatest thing to me to be able to memorize so easily now. I can now recite the first two units of this book forward and backward, or start anywhere in between. I took a look at the questions at the ends of the chapters, and they are almost word for word with the study guide and what I’ve memorized. I can’t wait to take the exam, it’s going to be such a breeze.


Private Pilot Certification – Unit 2

September 26, 2008

I woke up very excited today, I like having something to look forward to like this. The first thing I did when I woke up was to run through the images for what I had memorized yesterday. I had created a series of support images to hold the information in the same order as it is in my study guide. To review, all I needed to do was make sure I could still see in my mind the images that were connected to these supports. Even in my groggy state, this only took a minute, and everything was where it was supposed to be.

Now, in GMS there are two different levels of memorization. Most is memorized to a normal level… after 4 days of review like this morning, I’ll have it fixed for a minimum of 6 weeks. I say minimum because there was something I memorized, and 6 months later, without reviewing it once, I still knew it. However, after 6 weeks, some of the visual connections will start to weaken and fade, so it’s just a safe number to work with.

Anything I want to keep for a lifetime, however, I can memorize to a reflex level. This would take 3 or 4 reviews every day for 3 or 4 days. Once something is memorized to a reflex level, I won’t have to review it anymore to keep it in my memory.

Unit 2 – Instruments, engines, and systems
2.1 – Compass Turn Error
2.1.1 – Magnetic compass’s are accurate only during constant, straight and level flight.
2.1.2 – A magnetic compass in an airplane will deviate from one on the ground.
2.1.3 – On an east-west heading, the compass will point too far north while accelerating, and too far south while decelerating.
2.1.4 – A compass will lag behind the turn when turning from north, and lead the turn when turning from south.
2.1.5 – These errors diminish when the turns/acceleration is completed.

2.2 – Pitot Static System
2.2.1 – The Pitot Static System provides pressure for the altimeter, vertical speed indicator, and the airspeed indicator.
2.2.2 – The Pitot Tube provides ram pressure for the airspeed indicator only.
2.2.3 – If the pitot tube becomes clogged, the airspeed indicator will not function properly. If the static vents become clogged, neither the altimeter, vertical speed indicator, nor airspeed indicators will function properly.

2.3 – Airspeed Indicator
2.3.1 – Color coding for the airspeed indicator.
2.3.1a – White: Full flaps operating range.
2.3.1b – Green: Normal operating range.
2.3.1c – Yellow: Operating range in smooth air only.
2.3.1d – Red: Maximum speed in any condition.
2.3.2 – There is also a maximum maneuvering speed, the maximum speed at which full controls deflection can occur without structural damage. This speed is not marked.(I wonder why? Seems like an important thing to know!)

2.4 – Altimeter
2.4.1 – Altimeters have three hands.
2.4.1a – Long hand = 100 ft.
2.4.1b – Medium hand = 1,000 ft.
2.4.1c – Short hand = 10,000 ft.
2.4.2 – Altimeter numbers show from 0-9.

2.5 – Types of Altitude
2.5.1 – Absolute Altitude is the altitude above the ground surface.
2.5.2 – True Altitude is the altitude above the mean sea level.
2.5.3 – Density Altitude is the pressure altitude adjusted for non-standard temperatures.
2.5.4 – Pressure Altitude is the altitude above the standard plane of 29.92in. mercury.
2.5.5 – Pressure Altitude and Density Altitude are the same at standard temperature.
2.5.6 – Indicated Altitude and True Altitude are the same under standard conditions.
2.5.7 – Pressure Altitude and True Altitude are the same under standard conditions(29.92 in. mercury, 15 degrees C )

2.6 – Setting the Altimeter
2.7 – Altimeter Errors
2.8 – Gyroscopic Systems
2.9 – Engine Temperature
2.10 – Constant Speed Propeller
2.11 – Engine Ignition System
2.12 – Carburator Icing
2.13 – Carburator Heat
2.14 – Fuel/Air Mixture
2.15 – Abnormal Combustion
2.16 – Airplane Fuel Practices
2.17 – Starting the Engine
2.18 – Electrical System

I spent another hour on this today. First I read through the headings of the unit, and memorized them. Those are the 18 sub-units listed. Once I finished with that, I started reading each sub-unit and filling in the points.


FAA Private Pilot Certification

September 25, 2008

I plan on getting my private pilot’s certificate next year. In the mean time, I’m going to memorize the question bank for the certification test. It’s actually a study guide which explains everything you need to know to be able to answer all of the questions. There are 11 units, each unit containing between 35 and 70 questions, and one unit containing 196 questions. Using what I learned at the School of Phenomenal Memory, I plan to attack this project, and we’ll see about how long it takes me 🙂

There are many different methods of memorizing textual information in GMS. I could choose to memorize the information as in-depth as I want. For this project, I won’t be memorizing the material word-for-word. Instead I will have all of the precise information in my mind, and I will reproduce it in my own words.

1 – Airplanes and Aerodynamics
1.1 – Flaps and Rudder
1.1.1 – Flaps increase wing lift, allowing for a greater angle of descent without reducing airspeed.
1.1.2 – The rudder controls the yaw of the airplane, rotation around the vertical axis.

1.2 – Aerodynamic Forces
1.2.1 – The four forces are lift, weight, thrust, and drag.
1.2.2 – When lift=weight and thrust=drag, the airplane is in un-accelerated flight.
1.2.3 – Bernoulli’s Principle states that faster airflow produces less pressure. This is the principle behind the lift produced by the wings.

1.3 – Angle of Attack
1.3.1 – The Angle of Attack is the angle between the Wing Chord Line and the direction of the Relative Wind.
1.3.1.a – Wing Chord Line is an imaginary line between the front and trailing edges of the wing.
1.3.1.b – The Relative Wind is the direction of the airflow relative to the wing.
1.3.2 – The Angle of Attack at which an airplane stalls is constant, regardless of plane, weight, etc…

1.4 – Stalls and Spins
1.4.1 – An airplane will stall when the Critical Angle of Attack is exceeded.
1.4.2 – An airplane will stall at the same airspeed regardless of altitude.
1.4.3 – A Spin occurs when one wing stalls less than the other wing.
1.4.3.a – A stall must occur for there to be spin.

1.5 – Frost
1.5.1 – Frost occurs when the surface temperature is at or below the dew point, and the dew point is below freezing.
1.5.1.a – Water vapor freezes instantly when it touches the surface.
1.5.2 – Frost disrupts the smooth flow of air over the wing, causing early separation.
1.5.2.a – Decreases Lift
1.5.2.b – Increases Drag
1.5.3 – Frost makes it difficult to impossible to take off.
1.5.4 – Frost needs to be removed before take-off.

1.6 – Ground Effect
1.6.1 – Ground Effect is the interference of the ground on the airflow around the airplane.
1.6.2 – Ground Effect affects Upwash, Downwash, and Wingtip Vortices
1.6.3 – Reduced Wingtip Vortices also reduce the Induced Angle of Attack and Induced Drag
1.6.4 – Ground Effect is noticed within one wingspan from the ground.
1.6.5 – Ground Effect can cause an airplane to float before landing, or allow an airplane to takeoff with insufficient airspeed. When the airplane leaves the Ground Effect area, the airplane will fall back to the ground.

1.7 – Airplane Turn
1.7.1 – Airplane Turn is a result of Horizontal Lift. The pilot needs to coordinate ailerons, rudder, and elevator to create Horizontal Lift.
1.7.2 – Rudder controls yaw, but does not create turn.

1.8 – Airplane Stability
1.8.1 – A stable airplane will return to it’s original attitude after disturbance. This makes it easier to control.
1.8.2 – Longitudinal stability is determined by the relationship between the center of gravity and the center of lift.
1.8.3 – Moving the center of gravity aft reduces stability and makes stall recovery more difficult.

1.9 – Torque and P-Factor
1.9.1 – Torque effect is greatest at low airspeed, high Angle of Attack, and high power.
1.9.2 – P-Factor causes the airplane to yaw left at high Angle of Attack.

1.10 – Load Factor
1.10.1 – Load Factor is the weight of the airplane plus centrifugal force.
1.10.1.a – Load Factor increases with airspeed.
1.10.1.b – Increased Load Factor increases stalling speed.
1.10.1.c – Load Factor increases with angle of bank.

So that took me right about an hour in total. There were quite a few new concepts to me that I needed to research a little before memorizing(upwash, downwash, and wingtip vortices for example). Often I hear it mentioned that memorization is useless unless you understand the material. In a way this is true, and in GMS, information is memorized more easily the better you understand it. You could say that the information is memorized *through* understanding. Still, even something that you don’t understand, as in the spelling of Bernoulli, can still be memorized easily with GMS.

As I go along, I’ll be describing to you what it’s like to memorize using GMS. It’s completely different than using rote-repetition. All of this information that I just memorized is in my mind, like a slide-show. I can view, and recite it forward and backward, and I can jump to any particular place instantly. When I am asked a question relating to this information, the images, which contain the information, are right there for me. It’s unlike anything else I’ve ever experienced before.

All information is encoded into images. One of the main skills developed in the School of Phenomenal Memory course is that of visual thinking. Visualized images can be manipulated in the mind very quickly with training. Attention-control is another important aspect. After all, if I couldn’t sit down for 2 hours to memorize, I wouldn’t be able to memorize 2 hours’ worth of information 🙂

Well, I’ll leave it at that for now. Unit 2 has about twice the amount of information, so I’ll be working on that tomorrow.